Bonefishes Profile From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Temporal range:Early Paleocene–RecentPreЄЄOSDCPTJKPgNBonefish, Albula vulpesJapanese gissu, Pterothrissus gissuScientific classificationKingdom:AnimaliaPhylum:ChordataClass:ActinopterygiiOrder:Albuliformes
Greenwood,D. E. Rosen,S. H. Weitzman &G. S. Myers, 1966Family:Albulidae
The bonefishes are afamily (Albulidae) ofray-finned fish that are popular asgame fish inFlorida, select locations in the South Pacific, and theBahamas (where two bonefish are featured on the 10-cent coin) and elsewhere. The family is small, with 12 species in two genera.
Presently, the bonefishes are in their ownorder: Albuliformes /ˌælbjʊlɨˈfɔrmiːz/. Thespiny eels (Notacanthidae) andhalosaurs (Halosauridae) were previously classified in this order, but are now, according toFishBase, given their own order,Notacanthiformes. The largest bonefish caught in the Western Hemisphere is a 16 pound, 3 ounce example caught offIslamorada, Florida, on March 19, 2007.
The bonefishes’ closest relatives are thetarpons andladyfishes in the orderElopiformes. Bonefishes are unlike tarpons in that their mouths are under the snout rather than the end of it, and bonefishes lack the tarpons’ protruding snout. Like tarpons and ladyfishes, bonefishes can breathe air via a modifiedswim bladder, and are found in brackish waters. Bonefishlarvae areleptocephalic.
The slender body of the bonefish is silver, with a blue to green tinted back. On the upper half of the body there are dark streaks with cross bands connecting to thelateral line. Also, the body of a bonefish is rounded with a long downward aiming snout. The dorsal and caudal fins are black. Bonefish vary in adult length from 40–100 cm depending on species. The average size of a bonefish is from 3 to 5 pounds (1–2 kg) with the Florida record being 16 pounds 3 oz (7.34 kg).
The bonefishes are brackish or saltwater fish typically living inestuaries and travelling out to sea to spawn on a lunar cycle. They feed in the shallow sand and mud flats, onbenthic organisms, such asworms,mollusks,shrimp, andcrabs. They use their conical-shaped snouts to root out their prey, and can often be seen with their tails out of the water. Bonefishes possess crushing teeth in their palates.
This genus is like Albula, except it is found in deeper waters